THE COURAGE FOUNDATION

Who Is Edward Snowden?
Edward Snowden is a 31 year old US citizen, former Intelligence Community officer and whistleblower. The documents he revealed provided a vital public window into the NSA and its international intelligence partners’ secret mass surveillance programs and capabilities. These revelations generated unprecedented attention around the world on privacy intrusions and digital security, leading to a global debate on the issue.

Snowden worked in various roles within the US Intelligence Community, including serving undercover for the CIA overseas. He most recently worked as an infrastructure analyst at the NSA, through a Booz Allen Hamilton contract, when he left his home and family in Hawaii to blow the whistle in May 2013. After travelling to Hong Kong, Snowden revealed documents to the American public on the NSA’s mass surveillance programs, which were shown to be operating without any public oversight and outside the limits of the US Constitution. The US government has charged Snowden with theft of government property, and two further charges under the 1917 Espionage Act. Each charge carries a maximum 10-year prison sentence.

With the US pursuing his extradition, Snowden is now in Russia, where he was formally granted three years’ residency from 1 August 2014, after a year of temporary asylum in Russia ended on 31st July 2014. Journalists continue to publish documents from Snowden that reveal the secret and unaccountable systems of modern global surveillance.

Edward Snowden: Sam Adams Award
Snowden talks at the Sam Adams Award award ceremony in October 2013 about the secret surveillance he revealed and its dangers to democracy.

One of the tasks of the trustees is to oversee the functioning of Courage, which has been set up to raise money for journalistic sources’ legal defence campaigns. Edward Snowden is its first recipient, but he will not be its last. We expect to be supporting more journalistic sources and whistleblowers in the future and we expect to grow as more journalistic sources are nominated as recipients.

It is the only fund endorsed by Edward Snowden. If you see others claiming to raise revenue for Edward Snowden, please report them to the trustees at: courage.tru[email protected]

To contact us about any issue involving the site, or how to volunteer, please email: [email protected]

Edward Snowden has been charged by the US government with theft, “unauthorized communication of national defense information” and “willful communication of classified communications intelligence information to an unauthorized person”. The last two charges fall under the 1917 Espionage Act.

Each of the three charges carry a maximum of ten years in prison plus a fine, totalling a possible 30-year sentence. It is possible that further charges may be brought against Snowden.

The US administration has already taken many actions towards the extradition of Edward Snowden. Not only have arrest and extradition warrants been issued to numerous countries, but US officials have also personally pressured political leaders and threatened to cut trade benefits for failure to pursue Snowden’s extradition. People who have assisted, or are suspected of associating with, Snowden have also been put at risk or harassed, including WikiLeaks journalist Sarah Harrison, who accompanied Edward Snowden during his transit from Hong Kong to Moscow, and journalist Glenn Greenwald’s partner David Miranda, who was detained for nine hours under the UK’s Terrorism Act while transiting through Heathrow airport.

Edward Snowden risks an unfair trial as there is no public interest or whistleblower exception under the Espionage Act. This means Snowden would be unable to use his intent as a defence. In an interview, he explained the reasoning behind his revelations: “I can’t in good conscience allow the US government to destroy privacy, internet freedom and basic liberties for people around the world with this massive surveillance machine they’re secretly building.”

Snowden is not only at risk of legal punishments, but physical as well. Despite a letter from US Attorney-General Eric Holder that Edward Snowden would not be subject to the death penalty or torture, Michael Ratner, president emeritus of the Center for Constitutional Rights, notes that these comments are “meaningless“. On the subject of torture Mr Ratner commented:

“Think about how the US defines torture. The US doesn’t really think that anything it did under the Bush era was torture, with the exception possibly of waterboarding. So that means Ed Snowden can be subjected to every enhanced interrogation techniques – you know, lights on all the time, loud noise, cold temperatures, hot temperatures, strapped into a chair. All of the, quote, ‘enhanced interrogation techniques’ are allowed under US view of torture.” He also commented: “It doesn’t say anything in the letter [that the US] won’t put him into some underground cell and keep him there the rest of his life.”

To understand the threats against Edward Snowden, one need look no further than the other whistleblowers who have been prosecuted by the Obama administration. The Obama adminsitration boasts about the fact that they have “prosecuted twice as many cases under the Espionage Act as all other administrations combined”. A notable case is that of Chelsea Manning, who after three years of pretrial detainment, including under unlawful conditions, was sentenced to 35 years in prison.

The Obama administration’s crackdown on national security journalism and its whistleblowers has been escalating for some time and Edward Snowden’s revelations place him in the crosshairs.

More info: https://edwardsnowden.com/

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6+confirmations 

47372f250036996197c0864e97db04ea866eebbb583b27892565ea4c2ada5ecf

1 Input Consumed

0.69339057 BTC from
3JgfqZmwGFseH7hpkmrejyoryUkXaXriyE(output)

5 Outputs Created

0.00171615 BTC to
1E683Z3QsvKsN7tfjsAHoHCVFBrSroFWQN(spent)
0.00029967 BTC to
19UapTNDkWpwo3LYUJENyGQSeHj1Qy5AS6(spent)
0.01764832 BTC to
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0.00257798 BTC to
3C6qQDSRZVahLm5JryiF2zQFTeKzNQPfnH(unspent)
0.67082197 BTC to
3JgfqZmwGFseH7hpkmrejyoryUkXaXriyE(spent)

Estimated Value Sent :0.02224212 BTC(more)

"Estimated Value Sent" excludes known change addresses.For example, let's say we have a single transaction where address A sends 1 BTC to address B and also 1 BTC back to address A as change, then only 1 BTC is estimated to have been sent.Proper use of a new change address for each transaction (like all HD wallet implementations) obfuscate this feature.

6+confirmations 

dc83176a984ba9c5bd5a5db38b2dc49403d82a90b36eeca515acd9d036317898

1 Input Consumed

80.0 BTC from
3LtpFPpQhE4pc9MbaDsVqZNat2GeFUKCix(output)

100 Outputs Created

0.0007 BTC to
3C5rMJ9xGMw4AQW3tjpVKXx52vNAJ4ySXK(unspent)
0.00023884 BTC to
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0.00020442 BTC to
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0.00091261 BTC to
34hF9fV7ptwH7tjoSdNMH1SfmTuNSZM8Mw(unspent)
...

Value Transacted :79.9969224 BTC

6+confirmations 

252565cd05fcb213c1669ecd8a7bfe8119a4fe8eebe5cca0ee1dbe931f19b337

1 Input Consumed

2.0 BTC from
3MjYLtrbeFr93dzQVRGcjjL9YdVcxBoXeA(output)

10 Outputs Created

0.00203 BTC to
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0.0016 BTC to
3KGpvTLgCGPCGJX7UpMTc9nW89PBudyFks(spent)
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0.01608 BTC to
bc1q3wu7frumuxrg73f6w9sc4z23ths8r94u6fyekj(spent)
...

Value Transacted :1.9995477 BTC

6+confirmations 

646592cba0992fe53ad66dac45bb269e642fdb9d8dff665d9470bc2a7419a9ea

1 Input Consumed

0.34654728 BTC from
37V3jwG1L1LGFTSJad5w1z8uvnCMLaSrwz(output)

4 Outputs Created

0.04718206 BTC to
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0.10419047 BTC to
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0.0554986 BTC to
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0.13963552 BTC to
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Value Transacted :0.34650665 BTC

6+confirmations 

ab6000d487520ab9b203799244d6ba733dce0e2d25211887e96f1de445e14e03

1 Input Consumed

0.00365824 BTC from
3PSqTM4N12hwiRMigdFzMLo3EyR3TfYoFo(output)

2 Outputs Created

0.00104903 BTC to
3C6qQDSRZVahLm5JryiF2zQFTeKzNQPfnH(unspent)
0.00241616 BTC to
3CRq8MGdPguSZ4DJWLKDCNKYsJ2h58Wqbo(spent)

Value Transacted :0.00346519 BTC

6+confirmations 

09ef67f9707b3c0f918720bd8e582bc7c8526848329058fe5eb75122a286b59d

1 Input Consumed

0.10069497 BTC from
bc1q372hv6klxxawrvcafemd9ketc7mfhfxqzheahh(output)

2 Outputs Created

0.03 BTC to
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0.07069213 BTC to
bc1qq6ltklyggc6kdltfuwksrufgl32gkdhjacwg5k(spent)

Value Transacted :0.10069213 BTC

6+confirmations 

cc2bad5679aea06a78c3a365767d33d4e33035a87840756b90298bfaaa3ba4d9

1 Input Consumed

0.01610537 BTC from
bc1qlqajmgdj07ev0ft3ljq0mvnd9av9hectynczrg(output)

2 Outputs Created

0.01528333 BTC to
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0.00070446 BTC to
3C6qQDSRZVahLm5JryiF2zQFTeKzNQPfnH(unspent)

Value Transacted :0.01598779 BTC

6+confirmations 

66cf33ac0b1ef769bb41cb0874a9efe241822076c9e6700f2a83767ec11edcf4

1 Input Consumed

0.00016549 BTC from
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2 Outputs Created

0.00002536 BTC to
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0.00010693 BTC to
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Value Transacted :0.00013229 BTC

6+confirmations 

730cf012b4400d0e9b43590b974925f03193c6f06d7baa8d2c405dfabad0bbc0

1 Input Consumed

0.007214 BTC from
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1 Output Created

0.0071696 BTC to
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Value Transacted :0.0071696 BTC

6+confirmations 

318b51545afbe42454042c5cce3139525c1392197a0249d3dc2e7dfca70fe0f8

1 Input Consumed

1.16086353 BTC from
bc1q2tz66qwjyxuwasj8ylnyc35xhht920npkaxjgm(output)

21 Outputs Created

0.00932341 BTC to
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0.00099905 BTC to
3C6qQDSRZVahLm5JryiF2zQFTeKzNQPfnH(unspent)
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0.77196385 BTC to
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0.0464882 BTC to
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Value Transacted :1.16040142 BTC